Database Management Basics

Database management is a method of managing information that a company needs to run its business operations. It involves storing and distributing data it to applications and users and editing it when needed and monitoring changes to data and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is a component of the overall infrastructure of a company that supports decision making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory, to supporting complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that organizes data according to a certain scheme, like one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records, and also allows cross-references among tables. Each table contains a number of fields, called attributes, that contain information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most widely used type of database today. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It is also simpler to update data because it doesn’t require the modification of several databases.

Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level addresses cost, scalability and other operational concerns, such as the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level focuses on how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of various external views (based on the different data models) and may also include virtual tables that are computed from generic data to improve performance.

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